Nano-Material Aspects of Shock Absorption in Bone Joints

Abstract

This theoretical study is based on a nano-technological evaluation of the effect of pressure on the composite bone fine structure. It turned out, that the well known macroscopic mechano-elastic performance of bones in combination with muscles and tendons is just one functional aspect which is critically supported by additional micro- and nano- shock damping technology aimed at minimising local bone material damage within the joints and supporting spongy bone material. The identified mechanisms comprise essentially three phenomena localised within the three–dimensional spongy structure with channels and so called perforated flexible tensulae membranes of different dimensions intersecting and linking them. Kinetic energy of a mechanical shock may be dissipated within the solid-liquid composite bone structure into heat via the generation of quasi-chaotic hydromechanic micro-turbulence. It may generate electro-kinetic energy in terms of electric currents and potentials. And the resulting specific structural and surface electrochemical changes may induce the compressible intra-osseal liquid to build up pressure dependent free chemical energy. Innovative bone joint prostheses will have to consider and to be adapted to the nano-material aspects of shock absorption in the operated bones.

Keywords: Bone joint prostheses, spongy bone material, nano-material properties, pressure induced chemistry, shock absorption..