REVIEW ARTICLE


Experimental and Finite Element Investigations on the Biomechanical Consequences of Meniscectomies in the Knee Joint: A Narrative Review



Ashwin Kumar Devaraj1, Kiran Kumar V. Acharya2, Raviraja Adhikari1, *
1 Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Karnataka 576104, India
2 Department of Orthopedics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Karnataka 576104, India


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Creative Commons License
© 2023 Devaraj et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Karnataka 576104, India; E-mail: ravi.adhikari@manipal.edu


Abstract

Background:

The knowledge of the complex biomechanical behaviour of the meniscectomised knee joints is of paramount importance in various clinical situations. A combined review of experimental and finite element analysis studies examining the consequences of meniscectomies on the biomechanics of the knee joint has not been reported in the literature. Therefore, this paper presents a combined review of experimental and finite element analysis studies on the biomechanical consequences of medial and lateral meniscectomies in the knee joint.

Methods:

Experimental and FEA investigations on the association between meniscectomies and the biomechanical response of the knee joint are reviewed. The effects of partial and total meniscectomies in the medial and lateral compartments are included in this paper.

Results:

Subtotal/total medial meniscectomies cause a significant decrease in the contact area and a substantial increase in the contact stress in comparison with that in an intact knee joint. This could give rise to severe degeneration of the cartilage surface. Partial medial meniscectomy causes a modest reduction in the contact area associated with a moderate increase in contact stress. The resection of both leaflets of the meniscus results in a substantial increase in the contact pressure and a significant reduction in contact area compared with inferior leaflet resection.

Conclusion:

This review recommends partial medial meniscectomy over subtotal/ total medial meniscectomy. It also suggests performing resection of the inferior leaflet rather than resection of both the leaflets. Finally, some recommendations for future work are suggested to predict the realistic biomechanical behaviour of meniscectomised knee joints.

Keywords: Meniscectomy, Biomechanics, Finite element analysis, Experimental study, Contact stress, Knee joint.