Design and Analysis of a Continuous Split Typed Needle-Free Injection System for Animal Vaccination

Kai Chen*, Min Pan, Tingting Liu
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, China

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© 2017 Chen et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author atthe School of Mechanical Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, China; Tel: 86-13868150662; E-mail:



Liquid needle-free injection devices (NFIDs) employ a high-velocity liquid jet to deliver drugs and vaccine through transdermal injection. NFIDs for animal vaccination are more complicated than those used for human beings for their much larger and more flexible power sources, as well as rapid, repetitive and continuous injection features.


In the paper, spring-powered NFID is designed for animal vaccine injection. For convenience, the device is a split into a power source and handheld injector. A mathematical model is proposed to calculate the injection pressure, taking into the account pressure loss and the strain energy loss in the bendable tube due to elastic deformation. An experimental apparatus was build to verify the calculation results.

Results and Conclusion:

Under the same system conditions, the calculation results of the dynamic injection pressure match the experimental results. It is found that the bendable tube of the split typed NFID has significant impact on the profile of the injection pressure. The initial peak pressure is less than the initial peak pressure of NFID without bendable tube, and there is occurrence time lag of the peak pressure. The mathematical model is the first attempt to reveal the relationship between the injection pressure and the system variables of split typed NFID.

Keywords: Needle-free injection, Jet, Animal vaccination, Transdermal injection, Injection pressure.