AIMS AND SCOPE
The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal is an Open Access
online journal, which publishes Research articles, Reviews and guest edited
single topic issues in the field of biomedical engineering, aiming at providing
the most complete and reliable source of information on current developments in
Each peer-reviewed article that is published in a Bentham OPEN
Journal is universally and freely accessible via the Internet
in an easily readable and printable PDF format.
ONLINE MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION
An online submission and tracking service via Internet
facilitates a speedy and cost-effective submission of manuscripts. The full
manuscript has to be submitted online via Bentham's Manuscript Processing System
https://bentham.manuscriptpoint.com/journals/tobej / View Submission
Authors should ONLY submit their articles directly through our online
system as we do not accept articles through intermediary companies or
For all online submissions, please provide soft copies of all the materials (main
text in MS Word or Tex/LaTeX), figures / illustrations in TIFF, PDF or JPEG, and
chemical structures drawn in ChemDraw (CDX) / ISISDraw (TGF) as separate files,
while a PDF version of the entire manuscript must also be included, embedded
with all the figures / illustrations / tables / chemical structures etc. It is
advisable that the document files related to a manuscript submission should
always have the name of the corresponding author as part of the file name,
i.e., "Cilli MS text.doc" , "Cilli MS Figure 1", etc.
It is imperative that before submission, authors should carefully proofread the
files for special characters, mathematical symbols, Greek letters, equations,
tables and images, to ensure that they appear in proper format.
References, figures, tables, structures etc. should be referred to in the text at
the place where they have been discussed. Figure legends/caption should also be
A successful electronic submission of a manuscript will be followed by a
system-generated acknowledgement to the principal/corresponding author within
72 hours of the dispatch of the manuscript. Any questions with regards to
the preparation of and submission of your manuscript to the journal should be
addressed to email@example.com and copied
NOTE: Any queries
therein should be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org and copied to Jalil@benthamopen.net
Authors who publish in Bentham OPEN Journals retain
copyright to their work. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts
submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be
simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Plagiarism is strictly
forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree
that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against
the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. Once
submitted to the journal, the author may not withdraw their manuscript at
any stage prior to publication.
Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0) (
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits
the copying and redistribution of the material in any medium or format, as
well as remixing, transformation, and building upon the material for any
purpose, even commercially, provided appropriate credit is given, a link to
the licence is provided, and provided it is indicated if any changes were
It is a mandatory requirement that a signed copyright letter also be
submitted along with the manuscript by the author to whom correspondence is
to be addressed, delineating the scope of the submitted article declaring
the potential competing interests, acknowledging contributions from authors
and funding agencies, and certifying that the paper is prepared according to
the 'Instructions for Authors'.
All inconsistencies in the text and in the reference section, and any
typographical errors must be carefully checked and corrected before the
submission of the manuscript. The article contains no such material or
information that may be unlawful, defamatory, fabricated, plagiarized, or
which would, if published, in any way whatsoever, violate the terms and
conditions as laid down in the agreement. The authors acknowledge that the
publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the
authors for any such violation of the terms and conditions as laid down in
the agreement. Download
the Copyright letter
PERMISSION FOR REPRODUCTION:
Published/reproduced material should not be included unless you have obtained
written permission from the copyright holder, which should be forwarded to
the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of your article for publication.
For obtaining permission for reproducing any material published in an article
by Bentham OPEN, please fill in the request
FORM and send to email@example.com for
PUBLICATION FEES AND QUICK TRACK PUBLICATION
The publication fee for each article published in this journal is US $1005
The publication fee includes basic copy editing services. Once the paper is
accepted for publication, the author will receive an electronic invoice via
email. Subsequent submissions from the Bentham OPEN Authors
will receive a discount of US$ 100 on the total publication charges
providing their previous submission did not avail any discount off the listed
full author Open Access fee rate.
Bentham OPEN offers a 50% discount off the Publication Fee for
manuscripts of all corresponding authors who reside in countries which are
categorized as low-income economies by the World Bank. To see if you qualify for
the discount, please refer to the complete list of these countries click here
Quick Track Publication:
An optional fast publication fee-based service called “QUICK TRACK” is
available to authors for their submitted manuscripts.
QUICK TRACK allows online publication within 1 week of receipt of the final
approved galley proofs from the authors. The total publication time, from
date of first receipt of manuscript to its online publication is only 6
weeks, subject to its acceptance by the referees and modification (if
any) by the authors within one week.
The Authors will be charged US $350 processing fee
(non-refundable) and an additional $450 publication fee
(refundable if paper is not accepted for publication). The quick track
publication fee together with the Bentham OPEN publication
charges, will be payable before online publication of the paper. If the
paper is rejected, there will be no further charges other than the
$350 already paid.
Please note that whether the author opts for the QUICK TRACK facility or not,
standard reviewing practices will be followed, which will not in any way
affect the acceptance or rejection of the manuscript by the reviewers.
Authors who have availed QUICK TRACK services in a Bentham OPEN
journal will be entitled for an exclusive 30% discount if they
again wish to avail the same services in any Bentham OPEN
journal within the next 12 months.
For more information please contact the Editorial Office by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org
Bentham OPEN offers a 50% discount off the Quick Track Fee
for manuscripts of all corresponding authors who reside in countries which
are categorized as low-income economies by the World Bank. To see if you
qualify for the discount, please refer to the complete list of these
countries click here
The manuscript should be written in English in a clear, direct and active
style. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating in the
reviewing and editing of the manuscript.
Professional editing services may be availed by the team available at
Bentham OPEN, for the correction of grammatical,
scientific and typographical errors.
The journal accepts original research articles, review/mini-review articles
and letters written in English. Single topic/thematic issues may also be
considered for publication.
Research articles should be of 4000-6000 words with 75 or more references
excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables,
The length of a published comprehensive review article is from 6000-10000 words with 100 or more references excluding figures, structures,
photographs, schemes, tables etc.
Letters should be 3000-4000 words with 40 or more references excluding
figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.
This journal publishes Open Access reviews on recently published books
(both print and electronic) relevant to the journal. Publishers and
authors of books are invited to contact our book reviews editor at email@example.com
with book review requests. All submitted books will be reviewed by an
independent expert in the field. No page charges will be levied to
authors for the publication of book reviews.
Case reports should describe new observations of findings or novel/unique
outcomes relevant to the field. The total number of words for a
published case report is 1500 to 2500 words with 40 or more references
excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables etc.
The articles should be contributed by eminent experts on cutting-edge
recent developments. They should be written in the format of
mini-reviews (about 4 to 5 pages, approximately 800 to 850 words per
composed page excluding tables, structures, graphics, figures and
captions) with about 70 references to recent literature. All pages
should be numbered sequentially.
Editorials are short papers on important topics related to the journal.
The total number of words in an editorial should not exceed 1000 to 1500, and it
should contain only 10-15 references. An abstract is not required.
Commentaries present an analysis by scientists on different important
issues related to the publications in the journal. Commentaries should
contain less than 3000 words, including the abstract, main text,
references, and figure legends. However, an abstract is not necessary.
A perspective provides a short overview of a research topic relevant to
the field. The length of a published perspective ranges from 1500 to
1800 words, with 20 or more references, excluding figures, structures,
photographs, schemes, tables, etc.
For proposals to publish conference proceedings in this journal, please
contact us at email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The journal also considers Supplements/Thematic issues for publication. The Guest Edited Thematic Issues are published free of charge.
A Supplement/Single topic will be a collection of articles (minimum of 6,
maximum of 20 articles) based on a contemporary theme or topic of great
importance to the field. Mini-supplements consisting of between 3 to 5
articles are also welcome. The Guest Editors' main editorial task is to
invite the contributors to the Supplement and to manage the peer review of
submitted manuscripts. A short summary or proposal for editing a supplement
should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief at e-mail to email@example.com
Industry News should provide important developments in industries related to
the scope of the Journal, that could be of interest to the readers. The
length of the submission should be about 1000 words, and it should ideally
have 10 or more references (abstract is not required).
Patent News may present important information about recent important patents
that have been granted, relevant to the scope of this journal. The length
should be about 1000 words, and it should ideally have 10 or more references
(abstract is not required).
There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or additional files
e.g. video clips, animation and datasets, that can be included with each
article online. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with
each article (Refer to Supplementary Material section).
MANUSCRIPT SECTIONS FOR PAPERS
Manuscripts for research articles and letters submitted to the respective
journals should be divided into the following sections; however, there can
be an extension in the number of sections in review articles in accordance
with the requirements of the topic.
- Copyright letter
- Title page
- Structured Abstract
- Text organization
- List of abbreviations (if any)
- Availability of Data and Materials
- Conflict of interest
- Figures/illustrations (if any)
- Chemical structures (if any)
- Tables (if any)
- Supportive/Supplementary material (if any)
The title should be precise and brief and must not be more than 120
characters. Authors should avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations
and question marks in titles. The title must be written in title case
except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions.
As recommended by the Reporting guidelines information about the study
should be a part of the title (particularly for systematic reviews).
Authors should also provide a short ‘running title’. Title, running
title, by line correspondent footnote and key words should be written as
presented in the original manuscript.
Title page should include paper title, author(s) full name and
affiliation, corresponding author(s) names complete affiliation/address,
along with phone, fax and email.
The abstract of an article should be its clear, concise and accurate
summary, having no more than 250 words, and including the explicit
sub-headings (as in-line or run-in headings in bold). Use of
abbreviations should be avoided and the references should not be cited
in the abstract.
All the original research articles and systematic reviews must be
accompanied with a structured abstract. Ideally, each abstract should
include the following sub-headings, but these may vary according to
requirements of the article.
The headings can vary, but must state the purpose of the study, details
of the participants, measurements, methods, main findings and
6 to 8 keywords must be provided. Choose important and relevant keywords
that researchers in your field will be searching for so that your paper
will appear in a database search. The keywords should be contained in
the title and they should appear several times in the article. In
biomedical fields, MeSH terms are a good ‘common vocabulary’ source to
draw keywords from
The main text should begin on a separate page and should be divided into
title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided
further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed
by the List of Abbreviations (if any), Conflict of Interest,
Acknowledgements and Reference sections. For Review Articles, the
manuscript should be divided into title page, abstract and the main
text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be
discussed, which should be followed by the Acknowledgements and
Reference sections. The Review Article should mention any previous
important recent and old reviews in the field and contain a
comprehensive discussion starting with the general background of the
field. It should then go on to discuss the salient features of recent
developments. The authors should avoid presenting material which has
already been published in a previous review. The authors are advised to
present and discuss their observations in brief.
For Research Articles the manuscript should begin with the title page and
abstract followed by the main text, which must be structured into
separate sections as Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results,
Discussion, Conclusion, Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate,
Human and Animal Rights, Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements and
For case reports, the authors should follow the CARE guidelines.
checklist should be submitted as a separate file.
The manuscript style must be uniform throughout the text and 10 pt Times
New Roman fonts should be used. The full term for an abbreviation should
precede its first appearance in the text unless it is a standard unit of
measurement. The reference numbers should be given in square brackets in
the text. Italics should be used for Binomial names of organisms (Genus
and Species), for emphasis and for unfamiliar words or phrases.
Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should also be
italicized e.g. per se, et al.
Section headings should be numbered sequentially, left aligned and
have the first letter capitalized, starting with the introduction.
Sub-section headings however, should be in lower-case and italicized
with their initials capitalized. They should be numbered as 1.1,
The Introduction section should include the background and aims of
the research in a comprehensive manner.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This section provides details of the methodology used along with
information on any previous efforts with corresponding references.
Any details for further modifications and research should be
included. Sufficient details should be provided to the reader about
the original data source in order to enable the analysis,
appropriateness and verification of the results reported in the
It is important for the Method Section should be sufficiently
detailed in respect of the data presented, and the results produced
from it. This section should include all the information and
protocol gathered for the study at the time when it was being
written. If the study is funded or financially supported by an
organization to conduct the research, then it should be mentioned in
the Method Section. Methods must be result-oriented. The statement
regarding the approval by an independent local, regional or national
review committee (e.g. name of ethic committee and institutional
review board) should be part of the Methods Section.
Repeated information should not be reported in the text of an
article. A calculation section must include experimental data, facts
and practical development from a theoretical perspective.
The important and main findings of the study should come first in the
Results Section. The tables, figures and references should be given
in sequence to emphasize the important information or observations
related to the research. The repetition of data in tables and
figures should be avoided. Results should be precise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, present a reproducible procedure and emphasis the importance of the article in the light of recent developments in the field. Extensive citations and discussion of published literature should be avoided.
This section of research articles should discuss the implications of the findings in the context of existing research and highlight the study's limitations. The authors should justify the sample size according to the study purpose and methods.
The Results and Discussion may be presented together under one heading of “Results and Discussion”. Alternatively, they may be presented under two separate sections (“Results” Section and “Discussion” Sections). Short sub-headings may be added in each section if required.
A small paragraph summarizing the contents of the article, presenting
the final outcome of the research or proposing further study on the
subject, may be given at the end of the article under the Conclusion
The authors need to declare the funding sources of their manuscripts
clearly by providing the name of the funding agency or financial
support along with allotted grant/award number in round brackets (if
applied), for instance, “This work was financially supported by
[Name of the funding agency] (Grant number XXX).
Similarly, if a paper does not have any specific funding source, and
is part of the employment of the authors, then the name of the
employer will be required. Authors will have to clearly state that
the funder was involved in writing, editing, approval, or decision
to publish the article.
Registration of Systematic Reviews:
Systematic Reviews includes systematic updates in review protocols,
methods, research, and results from all fields of health for any
studies and updates on already published issues.
Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent:
For human or animal experimental investigations, it is a prerequisite
to provide a formal review and approval, or review and waiver, by an
appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee and
should be documented in your paper. For investigations undertaken on
human subjects, state in the Methods section the manner in which the
informed consent was obtained from the study participants (
i.e., oral or written), where there is an unavoidable risk
of breach of privacy- e.g., in a clinical
photograph or in case details- the patient's written consent or that
of the next of kin, to publication must be obtained. We will ask you
to send a signed consent form before publication. Consent must be
obtained for all Case Reports and Clinical Pictures.
Binomial Names: (Relevant for only Biomedical Field)
Italics should be used for Binomial names of organisms (Genus and
Species), for emphasis and for unfamiliar words or phrases.
Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should also be
italicized e.g. per se, et al. etc.
Chemical Reaction Data: (Relevant for only Chemical and
For heterogeneous catalysis, presentation should include reaction
rates normalized by catalyst surface area, surface area of the
active phase, or number of active surface atoms or catalytic sites,
as appropriate. Typical rate units are mol s-1 m-2
or, in the case of surface atom normalization to produce turnover
frequencies, s-1. For homogeneous catalysis, rates should typically
be reported as turnover frequencies. Comparisons of selectivities
should be made at similar conversions.
Catalytic measurements need to be carried out under kinetically
limited conditions. Confirming tests need to be carried out and
reported, especially for all reactions occurring in the liquid
Symbols and Units:
Greek symbols and special characters often undergo formatting changes
and get corrupted or lost during preparation of a manuscript for
publication. To ensure that all special characters used are embedded
in the text, these special characters should be inserted as a symbol
but should not be a result of any format styling (Symbol
font face) otherwise they will be lost during conversion to PDF/XML.
Authors are encouraged to consult reporting guidelines. These
guidelines provide a set of recommendations comprising a list of
items relevant to their specific research design.
Only ISO symbols, written in italic, should be used for the various
parameters. All kinds of measurements should be reported only in
International System of Units (SI). SI units should always be
written in roman and separated from the numerical value by a space
(whatever the language). The μ in μg or µm should be in roman. The
symbol for liter is L and that for minute is min. For temperatures,
please note the use of °C and °F but K. As the Ångström (1 Å = 10
-10 m) is not an SI unit, it should be replaced by the
nanometer (1 nm = 10-9 m) or by the picometer (1 pm = 10
-12m): 1 Å = 0.1 nm = 100 pm. Multiple units should be written
with negative superscripts (for example, 25 mguL-1 us
The list of notations should appear just before the first paragraph
of full text.
A list of symbols and units should be provided if used extensively
throughout the text.
Equations and Mathematical Expressions:
- Avoid the use of built-up fractions in the text. If not
avoided by the author(s), built-up fractions will be
converted to equivalent expressions on the line when the
paper is copyedited. In display matter, however,
built-up fractions are preferred for clarity.
- Avoid the use of small-type mathematical expressions
centered above or below arrows. If possible, try to use
an alternative format.
- In the exponential function, avoid exponents having more
than one or two characters.
- Avoid the use of reference numbers for equations that are
not subsequently referred to in the paper. Costs are
reduced if short mathematical equations and other
expressions in the text are run in (instead of each
being displayed on a separate line). Authors must expect
that, when accepted papers are copyedited, "excess"
equation reference numbers will be deleted and short
equations will be run in with text.
- Be sure to indicate special marking for symbols (
e.g., italics, boldface) and clearly identify
any unusual symbols. Try to avoid underscored symbols
because they often require hand composition and opening
up lines and thus are expensive. In vector notations,
indicate which letters or notations, if any, may be set
in boldface type. Indicate if asterisks are to be set in
superscript position or centered on the line.
- All equations should be indented and numbered as follows:
- Equation number should be right justified. Put three
dots(...) midway between the end of the equation and the
- Punctuation should not be used at the end of an equation.
- Particular care should be taken to distinguish between
the number zero (0) and the letter O; the number one (1)
and the letter l, the Roman letter v and the Greek
letter nu (n). The decimal logarithm should be written
"log" and the natural log "ln". The abbreviation of the
exponential function is a roman e (for example, ex
) or exp (for example, exp (u2 + n)). In
expressions of the type dxdt, the
letter d (derivative function) is always written in
roman, whereas the physical parameter (x
or t) is always in italics. Numbers are
written in numerals when they are followed by units,
these being represented by their SI symbols (10 % but a
- In numerals, each group of three letters should be
separated by a space (except for dates and postal
- Authors should provide the equations in *TeX/LaTeX file
format separately as well as embedded in the manuscript.
Nomenclature should conform to current American usage. Insofar as
possible, authors should use systematic names similar to those used
by Chemical Abstracts Service or IUPAC. Chemical Abstracts
(CA) nomenclature rules are described in Appendix IV of the Chemical
Abstracts Index Guide.
List of Abbreviations (if any):
If abbreviations are used in the text either they should be defined in
the text where first used, or a list of abbreviations should be
A glossary of terms/expressions used in the paper should be provided in
the order of their appearance in the article.
In case there is a need to present lengthy, but essential methodological
details, use appendices, which can be a part of the article. An appendix
must not exceed three pages (Times New Roman, 10 point fonts, 900 max.
words per page). The information should be provided in a condensed form,
ruling out the need of full sentences. A single appendix should be
titled APPENDIX, while more than one can be titled APPENDIX A, APPENDIX
B, and so on.
Supportive/Supplementary Material (if any):
We do encourage to append supportive material, for example a PowerPoint
file containing a talk about the study, a PowerPoint file containing
additional screenshots, a Word, RTF, or PDF document showing the
original instrument(s) used, a video, or the original data (SAS/SPSS
files, Excel files, Access Db files etc.) provided it is inevitable or
endorsed by the journal's Editor.
Published/reproduced material should not be included unless you have
obtained written permission from the copyright holder, which must be
forwarded to the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of your article
Supportive/Supplementary material intended for publication must be
numbered and referred to in the manuscript but should not be a part of
the submitted paper. In-text citations as well as a section with the
heading "Supportive/Supplementary Material" before the
"References" section should be provided. Here, list all
Supportive/Supplementary Material and include a brief caption line for
each file describing its contents.
Any additional files will be linked into the final published article in
the form supplied by the author, but will not be displayed within the
paper. They will be made available in exactly the same form as
originally provided only on our Web site. Please also make sure that
each additional file is a single table, figure or movie (please do not
upload linked worksheets or PDF files larger than one sheet).
Supportive/Supplementary material must be provided in a single zipped
file not larger than 4 MB.
Authors must clearly indicate if these files are not for publication but
meant for the reviewers'/editors' perusal only.
RESEARCH ETHICS AND POLICIES
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
All potential conflicts of interest (competing interests) that could have
a direct or indirect influence on the work must be disclosed by the
authors. Even if an author does not have a conflict, disclosing
affiliations and interests allows for a more comprehensive and open
approach, which leads to a more accurate and objective evaluation of the
work. Conflicts of interest, whether genuine or imagined, are a
perspective to which the readers are entitled.
The publication of a conflict statement in the article itself, as well as
the submission of the conflict disclosure form, is required for all
types of papers. It is not necessarily the case that a monetary
relationship with examination support or funding for counseling work is
inappropriate. Even if the authors do not have any conflict of interest,
they still need to provide a confirmation statement in their
manuscripts, i.e., “The author(s) confirm(s) that there is no conflict
of interest related to the manuscript.”
The following are some examples of potential conflicts of interest that
are directly or indirectly related to the research:
Financial competing interests include (but are not limited to):
- Type of support/grant number
- Institutional Conflicts of Interest
- Funds received by the author
- Funds received by the institution
- Travel allowances for the research
- Funds received for article preparation and reviewing
- Funds for conducting review activities
- Support provided for article writing assistance, for drugs,
- Paid lectures
- Pending fund or grant
Financial conflicts of interest can be personal as well as institutional.
Personal conflict of interest occurs when a contributor involved in the
publication process either receives an amount of money or expects to
receive some financial help (including any other financial benefits such
as patents or stocks, gifts or services) that may impact the work
related to a specific publication. More importantly, in academic
research, such financial relationships can lead to institutional
conflicts of interest (COIs) because the economic interests of the
institution or institutional representatives may unsuitably affect the
An institutional conflict of interest arises in a situation when
financial interests of an institution or any institutional official
(e.g., investments held by the university in a company) have the
potential to unduly influence the research conducted by its employees or
students, or pose an unacceptable risk to human subjects. Such conflicts
usually arise in a state of affairs where a research project directly
offers assistance or a benefit to an external entity via evaluation,
validation, trial or test of an invention, product, drug, service or
technology, and the institution holds a financial interest with the
external entity. Such financial interests incorporate, but are not
limited to, receipt of licensing payments or royalties from the external
entity, or ownership interest with the external entity. When human
subjects are involved in any research project, and the institution
supports such a financial interest, the conflict of interest is
speculated to be unreasonable.
Non-financial competing interests include (but are not limited
In addition, interests other than monetary and any funding (non-financial
interests) should be declared if they are relevant to readers. Personal
relationships or conflicting interests directly or indirectly related to
research, as well as professional interests or personal opinions that
may impact your research, are examples of these.
Intellectual property, in basic terms, refers to any intangible property
that is the result of creativity, such as patents, copyrights, etc.
Similarly, this section seeks to know about copyright and patent
(licensed patent, pending or issued) and any payment received for
intellectual property, such as:
- Licensed Patent
- Issued Patent
- Pending Patent
All conflict of interest disclosure forms are collected by the
corresponding author. It is sufficient for the corresponding author to
sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors in author
collaborations when legal agreements for representation allow it. The
templates of the form can be found here.
Before the reference list, the corresponding author will include a
summary statement in the text of the article that reflects what is
reported in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form (s).
Author(s) may declare(s) names of reviewers who they think might have a
potential conflict of interest; therefore, Editorial Office could avoid
inviting such reviewers for an unbiased opinion.
UNDISCLOSED CONFLICT OF INTEREST
Undisclosed conflict of interest cases before or after the publication of
an article are dealt with as per the guidelines of COPE.
- Undisclosed conflict of interest in a submitted article (View
- Undisclosed conflict of interest in a published article (View
For more information on COIs, see the guidance from the
Bentham Open tries to conduct a transparent peer-review process with the
help of the reviewers who do not have any conflict of interest with the
authors. In this connection, reviewers who belong to the same institute
or countries as authors are not invited to review manuscripts. However,
it is not possible for the Editorial Office to be aware of all competing
interests; therefore, it is expected from authors to submit:
- List of reviewers who they think have a conflict of interest to
ensure a transparent and unbiased review process.
The Editorial Office expects reviewers:
- Not to accept manuscript review requests if they have any
potential conflict of interest and inform the Editorial Office
- To decline review requests if they have recently published or
submitted an article with any of the authors listed in the
- To inform the Editorial Office if they have any personal
relationship with the authors or work in the same institutes as
of authors, which could affect the review transparency.
- To abstain from reviewing and informing the Editorial
Office/Editor-in-Chief/Handling Editors about any scientific
misconduct or fraud, plagiarism, conflict of interest, or any
other unethical behavior related to the manuscript, which they
found while reviewing it.
During the submission of review comments, reviewers are asked to
reconfirm that they do not have any conflict of interest related to the
article. After confirming the below statement, they can submit their
“I hereby confirm that I don’t have any conflict of interest related to
If, however, there are still any remaining interests, then reviewers must
mention those in the ‘Confidential’ section of the review form.
Reviewers are not encouraged to contact authors directly regarding any of
their conflicts of interest. Peer reviewers should follow journals’
policies in situations they consider to represent a conflict to
UNDISCLOSED CONFLICT OF INTEREST
If reviewers intentionally undisclosed any conflict of interest, then
they will be blacklisted for any future peer reviewing activity of the
The Editorial Office always ensures that an author, if added after peer
review activity of a manuscript, is not part of the reviewers’ list who
have conducted a peer review of the same manuscript.
Editors must not review submitted manuscripts if they have any personal,
professional or financial involvement/conflict of interest with the
authors of the manuscript. Every participant involved in the peer review
process, including editorial board members, reviewers, and editors, must
declare any potential conflicts of interest to ensure a transparent and
unbiased review activity.
Editors-in-Chief or Editors who are responsible for the initial and final
decision should recuse themselves to review or take decisions on any
manuscript that is written by authors affiliated to the same institute
as of editor, or if they have been a family member, competitor,
collaborator, or have published any manuscript in last 3 years with the
authors associated with the manuscript. They can however nominate
someone else on the Board who could provide a neutral opinion on the
The Editorial office recommends editors to follow
WAME guidelines to process such manuscripts which involves their
Manuscripts submission by an Editor/Editor-in-Chief
The initial and final decision on the manuscripts submitted by an
Editor/Editor-in-Chief will be taken by any other member of the Board.
The Editorial Office will identify members who do not have any potential
conflict of interest with the Editor or Editor-in-Chief.
Any research assistants or other individuals who assisted with the research but are not listed as authors, such as those who carried out the literature review, produced, computerized, and analyzed the data, or helped with the language, writing, or proofreading of the article, or offered any comments or suggestions, should be acknowledged. Briefly, everyone who has contributed significantly to the improvement of the paper should be acknowledged. It is recommended to mention the "Declared None" if there is no acknowledgement for the study.
Guest or honorary authorship based solely on position (e.g. research supervisor, departmental head) is discouraged
The specific requirements for authorship have been defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org). Examples of authors' contributions are: 'designed research/study', 'performed research/study', 'contributed important reagents', 'collected data', 'analyzed data', 'wrote paper' etc. This information must be included in the submitted manuscript as a separate paragraph under the heading ‘Authors' Contirbution’. The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining permission from all co-authors for the submission of any version of the manuscript and for any changes in the authorship.
HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS:
All clinical investigations should be conducted according to the Declaration
of Helsinki principles. For all manuscripts reporting data from
studies involving human participants, formal review and approval by an
appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee are required.
For research involving animals, the authors should indicate whether the
procedures followed were in accordance with the standards set forth in the
eighth edition of “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” (
published by the National Academy of Sciences, The National Academies Press,
Research Involving Animals:
Research work on animals should be carried out in accordance with the NC3Rs
ARRIVE Guidelines. For In Vivo Experiments, please visit
Authors should clearly state the name of the approval committee, highlighting
that legal and ethical approvals were obtained prior to initiation of the
research work carried out on animals, and that the experiments were
performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations stated
Compliance with the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical
Journal Editors www.icmje.org) is recommended,
in accordance with the patient’s consent for research or participation in a
study as per the applicable laws and regulations regarding the privacy
and/or security of personal information, including, but not limited to, the
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ("HIPAA") and
other U.S. federal and state laws relating to confidentiality and security
of personally distinguishable evidence, the General Data Protection
Regulation (GDPR) (EU) 2016/679 and member state implementing legislation,
Canada's Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act,
India's Information Technology Act and related Privacy Rules, (together
"Data Protection and Privacy Laws").
It is the responsibility of the author to ensure that:
- Patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers are not mentioned
anywhere in the manuscript (including figures).
- Authors are responsible for obtaining the patient consent-to-disclose
forms for all recognizable patients in photographs, videos, or other
information that may be published in the Journal, in derivative
works, or on the journal’s web site and for providing the manuscript
to the recognizable patient for review before submission.
- The consent-to-disclose form should indicate specific use
(publication in the medical literature in print and online, with the
understanding that patients and the public will have access) of the
patient's information and any images in figures or videos, and must
contain the patient's signature or that of a legal guardian along
with a statement that the patient or legal guardian has been offered
the opportunity to review the identifying materials and the
- If the manuscript has an individuals’ data, such as personal details,
audio-video material, etc., consent should be
obtained from that individual. In case of children, consent should
be obtained from the parent or the legal guardian.
- A specific declaration of such approval and consent-to-disclose form
must be made in the copyright letter and in a stand-alone paragraph
at the end of the article especially in the case of human studies
where inclusion of a statement regarding obtaining the written
informed consent from each subject or subject's guardian is a must.
The original should be retained by the guarantor or the
corresponding author. Editors may request to provide the original
forms by fax or email.
- All such case reports require by a proper consent being obtained
prior to publishing. Please refer COPE guidelines available at
Editors may request that authors provide documentation of the formal review
and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee
responsible for oversight of the study. The editors reserve the right to
reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements.
The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to
fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
Anonymous images, that do not identify the individual directly or
indirectly, such as through any identifying marks or text, do not
require formal consent, for example, X-rays, ultrasound images,
pathology slides or laparoscopic images.
In case consent is not obtained, concealing the identity through eye bars
or blurring the face would not be acceptable.
RESEARCH CONDUCTED IN SPECIAL OR CRITICAL SITUATIONS
Bentham OPEN expects all contributors to respect values of
justice, benevolence, and autonomy when conducting research. We understand
that certain situations such as medical emergencies or humanitarian crises
may differ from non-emergency scenarios. Bentham OPEN
recommends that research efforts should not hurt human subjects/respondents
or the researchers, and should be conducted with sufficient scientific rigor
as permissible in these situations, respectively. Care should be taken to
address potential problems faced by persons who may be victims of disasters
or involved in a medical emergency. These are vulnerable individuals and
their privacy and dignity should be respected. Researchers should make note
of this in their research and identify potential issues in their work that
may arise because of such situations. Research directed in emergency
circumstances should be to the greatest advantage of survivors involved in
the research and with the goal of minimizing any future casualties. For
guidance, the essential requirements of research in emergency situation are
the preservation of human life, wellbeing and security, along with the
rights to protection, privacy and confidentiality of subjects.
Unethical behavior and misconduct may be pointed out by anyone to the Editor
and Publisher with sufficient evidences. The Editor, in consultation with
the Publisher, will initiate investigation against this Unethical
misconduct, complete the procedure till an unbiased decision is reached, and
maintain confidentiality throughout the process of the investigation. The
Author should be given the opportunity to reply to all minor or major
In case of serious breaches, the employer may be informed where appropriate,
by the Editor/Publisher, after reviewing all available information and
evidences or after seeking help from experts in that field.
- Author(s) and Reviewers must be informed in case of
misinterpretation or mishandling of International Acceptable
- A strict notice should be sent to the author and reviewer to
avoid future unethical misconduct
- An Editorial on the reported misconduct should be published or
official notice of unethical behavior should be posted on the
- Official letter about this misconduct should be issued to the
Head of Departments, Funding Agencies of the accused author and
the reviewer, as well as Abstracting & Indexing Agencies.
- Where required, retraction and withdrawal of publication may be
undertaken from the Publisher’s journal in discussion with the
Head of the Department of the author or reviewer, and other
higher authorities should be informed
- The Publisher may impose restrictions for some period on future
publications from the accused author in the journals
Consent for Publication:
If the manuscript has an individuals’ data, such as personal detail,
audio-video material etc., consent should be obtained from that individual.
In case of children, consent should be obtained from the parent or the legal
A specific declaration of such approval and consent-to-disclose form must be
made in the copyright letter and in a stand-alone paragraph at the end of
the article especially in the case of human studies where inclusion of a
statement regarding obtaining the written informed consent from each subject
or subject's guardian is a must. The original should be retained by the
guarantor or corresponding author. Editors may request to provide the
original forms by fax or email.
Post-publication discussions are well-timed and engaging scientific
remarks and justifications on research articles published in “The Open
Biomedical Engineering Journal”. These remarks must be based on the
information concurrent with the original study and not on the scientific
advancements being made subsequently.
Manuscript Preparation, Submission & Editorial Process:
- Post-publication discussion should commence with a short paragraph that
outlines the summary of the article.
- Authors are advised to avoid using inciting tone in the comments and keep
the message clear and concise.
- The main text should not exceed 1200 words with up to 15 references and
may include one or two figures and/or tables.
- References should be submitted in the ACS or Vancouver style.
- The correspondents are recommended to contact the original authors first
prior to submitting their comments to the journal as this may resolve
the issues that may have arisen due to some misunderstanding.
- The correspondence that has been done with the authors should also be
submitted as an attachment with the manuscript.
Any queries therein should be addressed to
References must be listed in IEEE style only. All references should be numbered
sequentially [in square brackets] in the text and listed in the same numerical
order in the reference section. The reference numbers must be finalized and the
bibliography must be fully formatted before submission.
The references should be relevant to the study and should refer to the original
research sources. Self-citation and self-interest should be avoided by the
authors, editors and peer-reviewers.
The author will be responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the
See below few examples of references listed in the correct IEEE style:
G. Liu, K. Y. Lee and H. F. Jordan, "TDM and TWDM de Bruijn networks
and shufflenets for optical communications", IEEE Trans.
Comp., Vol. 46, pp. 695-701, June 1997.
S. M. Hemmingsen, Soft Science. Saskatoon:
University of Saskatchewan Press, 1997.
A. Rezi and M. Allam, "Techniques in array processing by means of
transformations," In Control and Dynamic Systems,
Multidimensional Systems, C. T. Leondes, Ed. San Diego: Academic
Press, Vol. 69, 1995, pp. 133-180.
D. Sarunyagate, Ed., Lasers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
N. Osifchin and G. Vau, “Power considerations for the modernization
of telecommunications in Central and Eastern European and former
Soviet Union (CCE/FSU) countries”, In Second International
Telecommunication Energy Special Conference Special Conference,
Budapest, Hungary, 1997, pp. 9-16.
K. Kimura and A. Lipeles, "Fuzzy Controller Component,"
U. S. Patent 14,860,040, December 14, 1996.
H. Zhang, "Delay-insensitive networks", M.S. thesis,
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 1997.
L. Bass, P. Clements and R. Kazman. Software Architecture
in Practice, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison
Wesley, 2003. [E-book] Available: Safari e-book. [Accessed:
Sept. 18, 2004].
P. H. C. Eilers and J. J. Goeman, "Enhancing scatterplots with
smoothed densities", Bioinformatics, vol. 20,
no. 5, pp. 623-628, March 2004. [Online] Available:
www.oxfordjournals.org. [Accessed Sept. 18, 2004].
Citations for articles/material published exclusively online or
in Open Access (free-to-view), must contain the exact Web
addresses (URLs) at the end of the reference(s), except those
posted on an author’s Web site unless editorially essential,
e.g. ‘Reference: Available from: URL’.
Some important points to remember:
- All references must be complete and accurate.
- All authors must be cited and there should be no use of the
phrase et al.
- Online citations should include the date of access.
- Journal abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus
- Take special care of the punctuation convention as described
in the above-mentioned examples.
- Avoid using superscript in the in-text citations and
- Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications
(which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained)
should not be given in the reference section but they may be mentioned
in the text and details provided as footnotes.
- The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote
(version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when formatting
their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically
AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS
The source of data and materials should be mentioned in the manuscript, in
support of the findings. Sharing research data is integral to its transparency
and reproducibility. Data sharing involves the citation and availability of data
that support the findings of the research.
Bentham Open encourages authors to share the source of data and materials in the
manuscript, in support of the findings.
Research Data Policy Types:
The four types of research data policies are mentioned below.
Case 1: Data sharing and data citation
Case 2: Data sharing and its evidence
Case 3: Statement for Data sharing and data availability
Case 4: Data sharing, evidence of data sharing and data
Case 1: Data Sharing and Data Citation
Wherever appropriate and possible, the journal encourages authors to publish
data to support their research findings in a public repository. Any datasets
mentioned in the article that are available in external repositories should
How to Cite the Data?
Whether the data was developed by the author(s) or researcher(s), all
publicly available data referenced in the preparation of an article should
be cited in the text and reference list. The references relating to the data
availability should be presented in the following format:
Example: Name of author(s), the title of data set, data repository, document
version (e.g., most recent updated version), Digital Object Identifier
(DOI), and Bentham Open reference style should be included in data
Case 2: Data Sharing and Its Evidence
When authors submit a paper to a journal, the authors agree that the data
provided in the publication, including the relevant raw data, will be freely
available to any researcher who wants to use these for non-commercial
reasons without jeopardising participant anonymity.
Case 3: Statement for Data Sharing and Data Availability
Data availability declarations are required under Bentham Open research data
The statement relating to the data availability should be presented in the
following format under a separate section for ‘Availability of Data and
Materials’ in the manuscript:
The authors confirm that the data supporting the findings of
this study are available within the article and its
The data that support the findings of this study are
available from the corresponding author, [author initials], on
The datasets generated or analysed during the current study
are not publicly available due to [mention the reason(s)].
Authors who do not wish to share their data should clearly
state that the data will not be shared, and thus mention as ‘Not
The statement relating to the data should be presented in
the following format:
"The data supporting the findings of the article is available in the
[repository name] at [URL], reference number [reference number]”.
Additional Data Availability Statements
Authors can add or change the statement(s) above, to fit their work the best.
Depending on the nature of the research, several assertions may need to be
Case 4: Data Sharing, Evidence of Data Sharing and Data for
All datasets on which the paper's conclusions are based must be made
accessible to reviewers and readers, according to the journal's rules. Prior
to peer review, authors must either deposit their datasets in publicly
accessible repositories or provide them as supplementary materials with
their submission. For further details, please visit complete guidelines at:
Archiving of Datasets
Authors may deposit their datasets openly to Zenodo Repository, in
addition to their own or their institutional archives.
Zenodo - a repository which is funded by the European Commission, CERN,
and OpenAIRE—features a Data for Policy community.
Data for Zenodo site is primarily being used to host Data for Policy for
conference papers and posters. However, we also encourage authors, who
are already submitting to Data and Policy, to use Zenodo for presenting
content associated with their articles.
Additionally, Zenodo can be used as a repository to host data and other
materials that are referred to in the Data Availability Statement. These
- data management plans
- software documentation
- audio and video files
- reports, and
- technical notes
Moreover, authors who wish to cite any relevant materials could use the
unique Digital Object Identifier (DOI) that Zenodo assigns to the
Data Access and Retention
Authors may provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data. if practicable, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.
STANDARDS OF REPORTING
The Authors are encouraged to use industry-recognized reporting guidelines for
biomedical and biological research, if applicable, to explain that all
requirements for reporting have been adopted.
All authors must strictly follow the reporting guidelines below for preparing the
study for publication.
FIGURES / TABLES
Figures/Illustrations (if any):
All authors must strictly follow the guidelines below for preparing
illustrations for publication in The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal.
If the figures are found to be sub-standard, then the manuscripts will be
The authors are expected to submit good quality figure(s) in PDF, PPT, MS
Word, TIFF or JPEG versions, which, if required, should be improved yourself
or by professional graphic designers of your organization/ country. You may
even consider approaching our contracted service providers Eureka Science
for Graphics Enhancement Services.
The Graphics Designing team at Eureka Science can assist in improving the
quality of your images at affordable rates. Eureka Science has contracted
special rates with us of US $135 for the improvement of up to five figures,
with any additional figures being charged at US $21 each.
The quality of Graphic Enhancement Services offered by Eureka Science can be
http://www.eureka-science.com/images/Binder1.pdf, along with valuable
feedback on their services at
http://www.eureka-science.com/testimonials.php. You may contact Eureka
Science at firstname.lastname@example.org
Note: Availing Graphics Enhancement Services does not guarantee
acceptance of the manuscript for publication. The final
acceptance/decision on the manuscript is taken by the EiC.
Guideline for Figures/Illustrations
Illustrations must be provided according to the following guideline:
Illustrations should be embedded in the text file, and must
be numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance. Each figure
should include only a single illustration which should be cropped to
minimize the amount of space occupied by the illustration.
If a figure is in separate parts, all parts of the figure
must be provided in a single composite illustration file.
Photographs should be provided with a scale bar if
appropriate, as well as high-resolution component files.
- All the numbers, symbols and letters in figures should be
consistent and clear throughout and large enough to remain readable when
the size is reduced for publication.
- It must be ensured to cite each figure in the text in
Line Art image type is normally an image based on lines and text. It does
not contain tonal or shaded areas. The preferred file format should be
TIFF or EPS, with the color mode being Monochrome 1-bit or RGB, in a
resolution of 900-1200 dpi.
Halftone image type is a continuous tone photograph containing no text.
It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode being RGB
or Grayscale, in a resolution of 300 dpi.
Combination image type is an image containing halftone , text or line art
elements. It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode
being RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 500-900 dpi.
Illustrations may be submitted in the following file formats:
EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
PDF (also especially suitable for diagrams)
PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
Microsoft Word (version 5 and above; figures
must be a single page)
PowerPoint (figures must be a single page)
JPEG (conversion should be done using the
Bentham OPEN does not process figures submitted in GIF
For TIFF or EPS figures with considerably large file size restricting the
file size in online submissions is advisable. Authors may therefore
convert to JPEG format before submission as this results in
significantly reduced file size and upload time, while retaining
acceptable quality. JPEG is a lossy format. However, in order to
maintain acceptable image quality, it is recommended that JPEG files are
saved at High or Maximum quality.
Zipit or Stuffit tools should not be used to compress files prior to
submission as the resulting compression through these tools is always
Please refrain from supplying:
- Graphics embedded in word processor (spreadsheet,
- Optimized files optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP,
PICT, WPG) because of the low resolution.
- Files with too low a resolution.
- Graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Technical requirements for graphic/ figure submissions.
|Width = 8.5 inches (In-between the required size)
|Height = 11 inches (In-between the required size)
|Pixels/Inches = 300 (minimum dpi)
|All figures should be in vector scale (except half
Image Conversion Tools
There are many software packages, many of them freeware or shareware,
capable of converting to and from different graphics formats, including
General tools for image conversion include Graphic Converter on the
Macintosh, Paint Shop Pro, for Windows, and ImageMagick, available on
Macintosh, Windows and UNIX platforms.
Bitmap images (e.g. screenshots) should not be converted to EPS as they
result in a much larger file size than the equivalent JPEG, TIFF, PNG or
BMP, and poor quality. EPS should only be used for images produced by
vector-drawing applications such as Adobe Illustrator or CorelDraw. Most
vector-drawing applications can be saved in, or exported as, EPS format.
If the images were originally prepared in an Office application, such as
Word or PowerPoint, original Office files should be directly uploaded to
the site, instead of being converted to JPEG or another format of low
Chemical structures MUST be prepared in ChemDraw/CDX and provided as separate
Structure Drawing Preferences
[As according to the ACS style sheet]
||18% of width
||14.4 pt (0.500cm, 0.2in)
||2.0 pt (0.071cm, 0.0278in)
||0.6 pt (0.021cm, 0.0084in)
||1.6 pt (0.096cm)
||2.5 pt (0.088cm, 0.0347in)
||Times New Roman
|Under the Preference Choose
|Under Page Setup Use
- Data Tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word table format.
- Each table should include a title/caption being explanatory in
itself with respect to the details discussed in the table.
Detailed legends may then follow.
- Table number in bold font i.e. Table 1,
should follow a title. The title should be in small case with
the first letter in caps. A full stop should be placed at the
end of the title.
- Tables should be embedded in the text exactly according to their
appropriate placement in the submitted manuscript.
- Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct by
ensuring that the borders of each cell are displayed as black
- Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals sequentially in
order of their citation in the body of the text.
- If a reference is cited in both the table and text, please insert
a lettered footnote in the table to refer to the numbered
reference in the text.
- Tabular data provided as additional files can be submitted as an
- It is adequate to present data in Tables to avoid
unnecessary repetition and reduce the length of the
- The citation of each table in the text must be ensured.
- Symbols and nonstandard abbreviations should be explained
in the end of the text.
- All references should be numbered sequentially [in square
brackets] in the table and listed in the same numerical
order in the reference section.
Bentham Open requires that all individuals listed as authors must have made a
substantial contribution to the design, performance, analysis, or reporting of
the work. The role of authors is judged on the basis of
All contributing authors are required to sign a copyright letter, mentioning
complete details, including full name, affiliation, email address, ORCID ID and
their role in the article. After successful electronic submission of a
manuscript, a system-generated acknowledgement will be sent to all authors on
their provided email addresses.
Authors and Institutional Affiliations
Authors must provide a final list of authors at the time of submission, ensuring
the correct sequence of the names of authors, which will not be considered for
any addition, deletion or rearrangement after final submission of the
manuscript. The email address of the principal author should be provided with an
asterisk. However, the complete address, business telephone numbers, fax numbers
and e-mail address of the corresponding author must be stated to receive
correspondence and galley proofs. Bentham Open recommends that all contributors
regularly update their profiles on SCOPUS/ORCID and other databases.
Authors are strongly recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article
for consideration. Alternatively, they can acquire an ORCID ID via the
submission process. For more information about ORCID IDs, visit
Changes to Authorship
At the time of initial submission, the finalized list of authors in correct
sequence should be provided, which will not be changed once the publication
process has started.
If any change is essential, then it can only be done after the approval of the
Editor-in-Chief upon receiving the following details from the corresponding
- The reason for the change in the author list and/or their sequence
- A proper justification should be provided for changes in authorship.
- Correction of existing names should be accompanied by a notice to the
Editor-in-Chief of the journal.
- A written confirmation from all the co-authors is a prerequisite for any
amendment or removal
Any amendment to the authors’ list will only be considered and approved by the
Editor-in-Chief after complete verification. Publication of the manuscript will
be withheld during consideration of the request. However, if the manuscript has
already been published online, requests approved thereafter by the
Editor-in-Chief will result in an erratum or corrigendum. The corresponding
author is responsible for obtaining permission from all co-authors for any
changes in the authorship.
Here is some advice by COPE on authorship issues. Bentham strives to follow these
on how to spot authorship problems
Activities such as the acquisition of funding, general supervision of a research
group or general administrative support, writing assistance, technical editing,
language editing, and proofreading alone do not qualify any contributor for
authorship. Such contributors may be acknowledged individually or together as a
group in the acknowledgement section. Further details for writing
acknowledgements are available
here. Persons not meeting authorship criteria can be acknowledged in the
acknowledgement section of the article rather than being enlisted as authors.
Guest or Honorary Authorship
All contributing authors should contribute substantially to the article and sign
the copyright letter. Bentham Open discourages authorship based solely on
position (e.g., a research supervisor or a departmental head). We use
COPE guidelines for identifying any suspected ghost, guest or gift
LANGUAGE AND EDITING
Manuscripts containing language inconsistencies will not be published.
Authors should seek professional assistance for correction of grammatical,
scientific and typographical errors before submission of the revised version
of the article for publication. Professional editing services may also be
sought by the team available at
Authors are required to proofread the PDF versions of their manuscripts
before submission. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked
immediately for typographical errors and returned within 48 hours.
Major changes are not acceptable at the proof stage. If unable to send
corrections within 48 hours due to some reason, the author(s)
must at least send an acknowledgement on receiving the galley proofs or the
article will be published exactly as received and the publishers will not be
responsible for any error occurring in the manuscript in this regard.
The corresponding author will be solely responsible for ensuring that the
revised version of the manuscript incorporating all the submitted
corrections receives the approval of all the authors of the manuscript.
REVIEWING AND PROMPTNESS OF PUBLICATION
All papers submitted for publication are immediately subjected to preliminary
editorial scrutiny by the Editor-in-Chief regarding their suitability. The
Editor-in-Chief determines if the manuscript:
(a) falls within the scope of the journal and
(b) meets the editorial criteria of Bentham OPEN in terms of
originality and quality.
Manuscripts that appear to be suitable are then subjected to single-blind
peer-review by, usually three, neutral eminent experts. The services of eminent
international experts are sought through invitations to conduct the peer-review
of a submitted manuscript, keeping in view the scope of the manuscript and the
expertise of the reviewers. The identity of the reviewers is not disclosed to
the authors. The anonymity of reviewers ensures objective and unbiased
assessment of the manuscript by the reviewers.
Before sending the manuscripts to reviewers, Bentham OPEN seeks
consent from potential reviewers about their availability and willingness to
review. Correspondence between the editorial office of the journal and the
reviewers is kept confidential. The reviewers are expected to provide their
reports in a timely fashion since a prompt review leads to timely publication of
a manuscript which is beneficial not only to the authors but to the scientific
community as well.
The editorial process and peer-review workflow for each journal are taken care of
by a team of Senior Editors, Editorial Board Members (EBMs) and dedicated
Journal managers who have the required expertise in their specific fields.
Bentham OPEN carries out independent review of all articles. The
reviewers are selected according to their expertise, from our, regularly
updated, referee database.
On the basis of reviewer comments, the Editors may recommend acceptance, revision
or rejection of a manuscript.
After review of the manuscript by at least three independent experts, in addition
to the views of the Editor, the decision is relayed to the authors, which may be
- Requires minor changes
- Requires major changes
- Rejected but may be resubmitted
- Rejected with no resubmission
Bentham OPEN requests not to have the manuscripts peer-reviewed
by those experts who may have competing interest with the author(s) of a
submitted manuscript. It is not possible for Editors to be aware of all
competing interests; it is therefore expected that the reviewers would inform
the Editor-in-Chief/Handling Editor if they notice any potential competing
interest during the course of review of a manuscript. Moreover, the reviewers
are expected to inform the Editors or editorial office of the journal if they
have a conflict of interest in carrying out the review of a manuscript submitted
by any author/contributor of the manuscript.
The authors are usually requested to resubmit the revised paper within 15 days
and it will then be returned to the reviewers for further evaluation. The
publishers normally allow one round of revision and, in exceptional cases, a
second round of revision may be allowed. If further revision is needed, then the
manuscript is rejected and the author is requested to resubmit the manuscript
for fresh processing.
The final decision regarding acceptance or rejection is that of the
Editor-in-Chief, depending on the quality of the revision and his assessment of
the quality of the manuscript. In rare cases, manuscripts recommended for
publication by the referees may be rejected in the final assessment by the
The time frame for revision of any article may vary from one to four weeks,
depending on the nature of the revision required (minor or major). However,
authors who need extra time for revision should consult the
Editor-in-Chief/Handling Editor with valid reasons and the submission date of
the revised manuscript may be extended if the request is genuine.
After the successful completion of the review and acceptance of the article, the
articles are typeset and proofs are dispatched to authors for any corrections
prior to final publication.
Types of Peer Review:
Peer review is the most important activity of the publication process.
Bentham OPEN follows single-blind and Open peer review
procedures for submissions of all manuscripts to its journals.
In Single-Blind review, the reviewers’ names are not disclosed to the
author but the reviewers are aware of the identity of the author(s).
In the Open Review model the referee’s report may be published together
with the article if the author(s) and the referees agree. The identity
of the referee may or may not be revealed, according to the opinion of
Authors may opt for “Open Peer-Review”, which highlights the
review process undertaken to publish the research. Optional Open
Peer-Review entails publication of all reviewers’ assessments as well as
the approval of the Editor on the manuscript together with the article.
The reviewers may or may not choose to sign their assessment form and
identify themselves in the published reports. The names of the reviewers
will be disclosed only if they agree to reveal their identities. The
final decision of whether we publish the review or not lies with the
Editor and the Publisher.
Bentham OPEN uses the iThenticate software which detects
instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. This
software checks content against a database of periodicals, the Internet, and a
comprehensive article database. It generates a similarity report, highlighting
the percentage overlap between the uploaded article and the published material.
Any instance of content overlap is further scrutinized for suspected plagiarism
according to the publisher’s Editorial Policies. If the similarity seems
legitimate, the article will be proceeded for further review process; however,
in cases of superfluous plagiarism, the authors have to revise the text as per
Bentham OPEN strictly follows the COPE guidelines to detect
plagiarism; for more clear insight, authors may refer to flowcharts provided by
COPE by clicking
here or by visiting COPE website.
Low Text Similarity
The text of every submitted manuscript is checked by using the Content
Tracking mode in iThenticate. The Content Tracking mode ensures that
manuscripts with an overall low percentage similarity (but which may have a
higher similarity from a single source) are not overlooked. If the
similarity level is significantly high, then the manuscript is returned to
the author for paraphrasing the text and citing the original source of the
It is important to mention that the text taken from different sources with an
overall low similarity percentage will be considered as a plagiarized
content if the majority of the article is a combination of copied material.
High Text Similarity
There may be some manuscripts with an overall low similarity percentage, but
a higher percentage from a single source. For instance, a manuscript may
have less than 20% overall similarity but there may be 15 % similar text
taken from a single article; the similarity index in such cases is higher
than the approved limit for a single source. Authors are advised to
thoroughly rephrase the similar text and properly cite the original source
to avoid plagiarism and copyright violation.
TYPES OF PLAGIARISM:
We all know that scholarly manuscripts are written after a thorough review of
previously published articles. It is therefore, not easy to draw a clear
boundary between legitimate representation and plagiarism. However, the
following important features can assist in identifying different kinds of
plagiarized content. These are:
- Reproduction of others words, sentences, ideas or findings as
one’s own without proper acknowledgement.
- Text recycling, also known as self-plagiarism. It is an author’s
use of a previous publication in another paper without proper citation and
acknowledgment of the original source.
- Paraphrasing poorly: Copying complete paragraphs and modifying a
few words without changing the structure of original sentences or changing
the sentence structure but not the words.
- Verbatim copying of text without putting quotation marks and not
acknowledging the work of the original author.
- Properly citing a work but poorly paraphrasing the original text
is considered as unintentional plagiarism. Similarly, manuscripts with
language somewhere between paraphrasing and quoting are not acceptable.
Authors should either paraphrase properly or quote and in both cases, cite
the original source.
- Higher similarity in the abstract, introduction, materials and
methods, and discussion and conclusion sections indicates that the
manuscript may contain plagiarized text. Authors can easily explain these
parts of the manuscript in many ways. However, technical terms and sometimes
standard procedures cannot be rephrased; therefore Editors must review these
sections carefully before making a decision.
PLAGIARISM IN PUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS:
Published manuscripts which are found to contain plagiarized text are
retracted from the journal website after careful investigation and approval
by the Editor-in-Chief of the journal. A ‘Retraction Note’ as well as a link
to the original article is published on the electronic version of the
plagiarized manuscript and an addendum with retraction notification in the
For further details, please visit:
APPEALS AND COMPLAINTS
Generally, the editorial decisions are not reverted. However, authors who think
that their manuscript was rejected due to a misunderstanding or mistake may seek
an explanation for the decision. Appeals must give sound reasoning and
compelling evidence against the criticism raised in the rejection letter. A
difference of opinion as to the interest, novelty, or suitability of the
manuscript for the journal will not be considered as an appeal. The EIC and
other relevant editors will consider the appeal and the decision thereafter
taken by the journal will be deemed final. Acceptance of the manuscript is not
guaranteed even if the journal agrees to reconsider the manuscript, and the
reconsideration process may involve previous or new reviewers or editors and
Authors who wish to make a complaint should refer them to the Editor-in-Chief of
the journal concerned. Complaints to the Publisher may be emailed to
How the complaint can be filed to Bentham OPEN?
Bentham OPEN is constantly striving to improve its
publication practices. If you are not satisfied with any procedure of the
processing of your manuscript, then please let us know at the following
email address with full details:
For Assistance please contact: email@example.com
For complaints please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
FABRICATING AND STATING FALSE INFORMATION
To ensure the scholarly integrity of every article, Bentham OPEN
will publish post-publication notices. The authors of the published articles, or
those who have submitted the manuscripts with false information, or fabricated
the supporting data or images, will be liable for sanctions, and their papers
will be retracted. For further details, please visit complete guidelines at:
Extend the scope and visibility of your research by creating an animated
abstract. Bentham OPEN has collaborated with Focus Medica,
one of the world’s largest publishers of expert animated atlases and videos
in medicine and science.
An animated abstract will help summarise the essential discoveries/ key
findings of your published research or review article. Each professionally
produced full-coloured animated abstract in video format (length 3-5
minutes) is accompanied by an English spoken or foreign language commentary.
The animated abstract will be published online along with the published
The payment for an animated abstract will be US$ 1190 for
English language, and US$ 1690 for Foreign language articles.
Initially, an advance amount of US$ 700 will be payable to the
Publisher to start work on the Animated Abstract, while the balance of US$
490 (English language) or US$ 990 (Foreign language)
will be payable on completion of the Animated Abstract.
Authors will be asked whether they wish to opt-in for this paid animated
abstract service, and if not, the article will be published as normal.
Animated abstracts are available as Open Access (free viewing) for maximum
visibility and awareness to readers at anytime, anywhere. The animated
abstracts are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License (CC
Sample Animated Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance represents a significant challenge to future
healthcare provision.An acronym ESKAPEE has been derived from the names
of the organisms recognised as the major threats although there are a
number of other organisms, notably Neisseria gonorrhoeae, that have
become equally challenging to treat in the clinic. These pathogens are
characterised by the ability to rapidly develop and/or acquire
resistance mechanisms in response to exposure to different antimicrobial
agents. A key part of the armoury of these pathogens is a series of
efflux pumps, which effectively exclude or reduce the intracellular
concentration of a large number of antibiotics, making the pathogens
significantly more resistant. These efflux pumps are the topic of
considerable interest, both from the perspective of basic understanding
of efflux pump function, and its role in drug resistance but also as
targets for the development of novel adjunct therapies. The necessity to
overcome antimicrobial resistance has encouraged investigations into the
characterisation of resistance-modifying efflux pump inhibitors to block
the mechanisms of drug extrusion, thereby restoring antibacterial
susceptibility and returning existing antibiotics into the clinic. A
greater understanding of drug recognition and transport by multidrug
efflux pumps is needed to develop clinically useful inhibitors, given
the breadth of molecules that can be effluxed by these systems. This
review discusses different bacterial EPIs originating from both natural
source and chemical synthesis and examines the challenges to designing
successful EPIs that can be useful against multidrug resistant bacteria.
SPECIAL FEE WAIVERS AND DISCOUNTS
Bentham OPEN offers waivers and discounts to those corresponding
authors who are based in low-income countries*.
The authors who wish to avail this offer should request for a waiver or discount
at the time of submission of their manuscripts to Bentham OPEN.
Bentham OPEN offers a 50% discount on Open Access fee for
manuscripts from corresponding authors based in countries categorized as
low-income economies by World Bank (list given below).
For more information regarding Publication Fee of Bentham OPEN
journals, please click here:
List of Countries*:
Central African Republic
Syrian Arab Republic
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Papua New Guinea
São Tomé and Principe
West Bank and Gaza
Congo, Dem. Rep
Bentham OPEN offers ‘Complimentary Membership’ to International
R & D organizations, institutes and universities. Bentham OPEN
Membership entitles authors from different member institutes to a special
discount of 20% on the Open Access publication fee on their submissions to The Open
Biomedical Engineering Journal. Additionally, input and contributions from
associate institutes would also be recognized and a link to their respective
Website would be displayed on the Bentham OPEN membership page.
The member institution’s logo will also be published on the same page.
Bentham OPEN Membership provides the following
- Possibility to explore 21 distinct disciplines by means of publishing
in 41 Open Access journals.
- Author(s) own the copyrights to their published articles.
- Unbound right to read, download or print Open Access articles.
- Extensive peer-review of submitted articles.
- Access to a range of articles in printed form such as short
communications, full length research articles, reviews or conference
- Simple steps from submission to publication, leading to fast
- Possibility of archiving published articles.
The complimentary membership is valid for a span of one year and upon completion
of the prescribed period, it is renewed by mutual interest and agreement.
If you find the above mentioned details relevant, then kindly contact us via
e-mail at email@example.com
GAIN MORE PUBLICATION REACH AND IMPACT VIA KUDOS
Bentham OPEN is a publishing partner of Kudos. All authors who
publish in this journal will receive an invitation to join the Kudos platform,
an entirely free service for authors. Kudos enables authors to help broaden
their audience and readers, increase their professional profile and reputation,
and establish an impact for their publications. The website link is www.growkudos.com
Kudos provides a free platform to researchers to have their publications
accessible, read and cited across multiple networks and channels available to
researchers for the dissemination of their work. It takes on average 15 minutes
and leads to 23% higher growth in full-text downloads.
Authors are encouraged to explain their work in clear English and to attract
researchers of the relevant communities, share a trackable link that you can
email to your existing network of contacts, or share on social media and
academic websites, and track how well the articles are performing through the
summary of views, downloads, citations, and altmetrics on the Kudos dashboard.
Authors may also use the new shareable PDF (S-PDF) service. The S-PDF provides
researchers with the means to write and share a high-level overview for each of
their publications. Kudos thereby provides researchers, and their publishers and
institutions, with a rich understanding of which channels and activities are
most effective for broadening the reach and impact of published science.
Bentham OPEN provides excellent professionally printed reprints,
each inside a beautiful journal cover, which you can proudly send to colleagues
and scientists in your field. These reprints with cover are available at
concessionary rates. The minimum limit of reprint order is 25 copies.
- Authors who order minimum 100 will be entitled to a 35%
- Authors who order minimum 200, 300, 400 and 500 will
be entitled to a 15% discount.
If the article was originally printed in color, the reprint will be an exact
replication of the original for an additional charge.
Company logos and foreword can be published on the printed reprint cover page
in sponsored reprints.
500 OR MORE REPRINTS
Orders Above 500 reprint copies: A quotation for orders above 500 can be
obtained by emailing at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Printed covers are available at extra cost.
AIRMAIL AND HANDLING COSTS
Reprints are dispatched to the customers by airmail. Airmail and handling
costs will be invoiced additionally with the reprints. Our shipping
department requires the name and telephone number of the recipient of the
order. These quotes are in US Dollars and are valid for 30 days.
Once confirmed, your order will ship to deliver in 35 business days from the
day the proofs, if required, have been approved or from the day of
confirmation. Expedited delivery option is also available.